The neck is part of the back but because the spinal cord is thickest in the cervical(neck) region, the muscles are much smaller and there is a higher number of nerves in a smaller region it is quite sensitive to injury.
Twisted neck or neck strain
Is caused by muscles strain due to overuse (sitting in front of the computer too long) or sleeping in a awkward position. This can be treated with physiotherapy as well lifestyle changes.
The muscles that supports the neck are also involved with the stabilising the shoulder and therefore neck problems can present with pain in the shoulder blade or shoulder problems can cause secondary neck problems.
It is therefore important that your physiotherapist look at both the neck and shoulder.
Is caused by age related wear and tear on the intervertebral disc in the neck. This cause the disc too loose height and to weaken. This increase the pressure on the facet joint and the facet joint begins to develop arthritis. The arthritis cause the cartilage to wear and the smooth surface to deteriorate. The body can try and develop more bone in order to protect the joint but this forms bony spurs that can narrow the canal and thereby cause nerve pain.
A herniated disc (as in the lower back) can develop as a result of trauma (motorcar accident, a fall, motorcycle accident) the herniated disc material can narrow the canal of the nerve and cause severe arm pain, and weakness in the some of the arm muscles or it can put pressure on the spinal cord. This cause pain in both arms as well as symptoms in the legs. This is very dangerous since even the smallest of force can cause the spinal cord to be permanently damaged.
Your neurosurgeon will be the best to advise you on the type of surgery needed. The rehabilitation after neck surgery is aimed at how to change your lifestyle to protect your neck as well as to strengthen your shoulder and core muscles.